Benzene contamination of various foods is presented based on other European and American investigations and Codex Alimentarius documents. The formation and occurrence of benzene in non-alcoholic … N. Cubero, A. Monferrer, and J. Villalta, F. J. Casado, A. H. Sánchez, A. de Castro, L. Rejano, V. M. Beato, and A. Montaño, “Fermented vegetables containing benzoic and ascorbic acids as additives: benzene formation during storage and impact of additives on quality parameters,”, C. Chang and K. Ku, “Studies on benzene formation in beverages,”, R. M. Y. Morsi, N. R. EL-Tahan, and K. El-Tobgy, “Probability of benzene forming in Egyptian non-alcohol carbonated soft drinks,”, R. Medeiros Vinci, B. de Meulenaer, M. Andjelkovic, M. Canfyn, I. van Overmeire, and J. van Loco, “Factors influencing benzene formation from the decarboxylation of benzoate in liquid model systems,”, J. R. Mahoney Jr. and E. Graf, “Role of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, citric acidand EDTA as oxidants in model systems,”, B. Smith, P. Cadby, M. DiNovi, and R. W. Setzer, “Application of the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach to substances in food that are genotoxic and carcinogenic: example: benzene, CAS: 71-43-2,”. Measured and predicted environmental concentrations were used to estimate the accumulation of benzene in the food chain and the subsequent extent of human exposure from inhalation and ingestion. Benzene is a chemical that is released into the air from emissions from automobiles and burning coal and oil. The said reaction was favored by an acidic pH but significantly slowed down at the 3–5 pH range. 8. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene formation was greater in samples heated to 40°C than in those exposed to UV or visible light. Transition metals, such as Cu(II) and Fe(III), may catalyze the transfer of one electron from ascorbic acid to oxygen, producing the radical superoxide, which then undergoes spontaneous dismutation to form hydrogen peroxide. The site is secure. The study antioxidants were capable of reducing the formation of benzene, and when compared with EDTA, the standard antioxidant, which completely inhibited benzene formation at a concentration of 1 mM, would need to be present in higher concentrations to achieve the same results. Even after all the ascorbic acid had reacted, as seen in pickled caper berries stored in plastic bottles for 26 and 27 weeks, benzene continued to form, indicating that benzoate decarboxylation can be induced by ascorbic acid degradation products during long storage periods at room temperature [30]. Where Benzene Exposures Are Coming From. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. In this case, the addition of chelators, such as EDTA or sodium polyphosphates, may help to minimize benzene formation. It also contains the Alert, Information and Upper and Lower Assessment thresholds for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, benzene, … Therefore, light/diet products are more vulnerable to benzene formation. Benzene is a chemical that is released into the air from emissions from automobiles and burning coal and oil. Benzene may form in foods and beverages with benzoic and ascorbic acids because the conditions simulated by Gardner and Lawrence [9] are the most prevalent during processing and storage. Benzene's History of Uses One of the early uses of benzene dates back in the 19th and early 20th centuries. We know that benzene is a human carcinogen with a unique electromagnetic potential that enables it to insert itself into human DNA. (iv)Raw carbon dioxide may be contaminated—the limit is 20 ppm of benzene (v/v). The largest source of benzene to households in the above-mentioned populations is natural gas development and petroleum refining. Benzene is found in crude oil and is a major part of gasoline. Benzene is widely used as a solvent. After eight days stored in the dark, the solutions had a benzene concentration of 176 ng/g. HYDROQUINONE: Manufactured by oxidizing aniline, it is used extensively as a photographic developer and as a food antioxidant. However, there are other sources which introduce benzene into the home. Fortunately, that use was also abandoned. Its boiling point is 323℃. Higher metal ion concentrations reduced benzene formation. Properties of Benzene Hexachloride Properties of benzene hexachloride are as follows – Its molecular formula is C 6 H 6 Cl 6. Transition metals may be present in raw water and sweeteners. It is also used in the manufacture of a wide range of industrial products, including chemicals, dyes, detergents, and some plastics. Lachenmeier et al. Its molecular weight is 291g/mol. Benzene definition, a colorless, volatile, flammable, toxic, slightly water-soluble, liquid, aromatic compound, C6H6, obtained chiefly from coal tar: used in the manufacture of commercial and medicinal chemicals, dyes, and as a solvent for resins, fats, or the like. Benzene in air comes either from natural sources, such as forest fires and volcanic activity, or from human activities, such as cigarette smoking and burning of fossil fuels [2]. (viii)Consider removing, reducing, or replacing ascorbates with other antioxidants. Agricultural products may also be contaminated with benzene from emissions caused by fires and the use of fossil fuel-burning equipment [7]. Calcium and other minerals present in food, especially beverages, may compete with copper and/or iron ions for EDTA, reducing EDTA’s ability to prevent benzene formation. Benzene is a common industrial chemical used in manufacturing plastics and some types of rubbers, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Medeiros Vinci et al. Benzene may be introduced in foods during processing, in processes like smoking, roasting, and ionizing radiation [17]. Benzoic acid is generally recognized as safe by the FDA when used in food amounts, with a maximum usage set at 0.1 percent for food products. Although undissolved benzoic acid is the most effective antimicrobial agent, benzoates are used more often because of their greater solubility in water. Popular Uses of Benzene. Hydrogen peroxide is further reduced, a reaction also catalyzed by those metal ions, and may generate hydroxyl radicals [27]. At the beginning of the 1990s, Gardner and Lawrence [9] showed that hydroxyl radicals generated by the reduction of oxygen or hydrogen peroxyde by ascorbic acid, catalyzed by metal ions, could decarboxylate benzoic acid through a pH-dependent reaction, resulting in the benzene formation in foods and beverages. Therefore, light/diet products are more vulnerable to benzene formation. Antioxidants may occur naturally in foods or be added intentionally to prevent oxidation and the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Its molecular weight is 291g/mol. Coloring agents and flavors may contain ascorbates. A. Becalski, in Encyclopedia of Food Safety, 2014. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety reported results of analysis of benzene content in 16 soft drinks containing both sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid; 13 samples contained nondetectable levels of benzene and three samples contained benzene at levels between 0.7 and 4.7 mg/L 45). Six samples of beer have been contaminated with benzene through the use of contaminated carbon dioxide during carbonation [22]. Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods, Laboratório de Sensores Biológicos, Escola de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Horácio Macedo 2030, CT, Bloco E, Sala E-122, Ilha do Fundão, 21941-598 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, Laboratório de Bioquímica Nutricional e de Alimentos, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, CT, Bloco A, Sala 528A, Ilha Fundão, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, Laboratório de Microbiologia de Alimentos, Escola de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Horácio Macedo 2030, CT, Bloco E, Sala E-104, Ilha do Fundão, 21941-598 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. It can be found in crude oil products like gasoline, plastics, resins and synthetic fibers. Benzoic acid has low solubility in normal temperatures [25]. found that some substances, such as β-carotene, phenylalanine, or terpenes, may decompose during processing to yield benzene [21]. The acid is a preservative and examples of foods that contain high … Use and Occurrence in Environment. Benzene also has household uses too, but the extent of its use is limited due to its toxic and carcinogenic nature. Benzoates are common preservatives sometimes added to beverages to prevent bacterial growth. (ii)Sugars may reduce benzene formation but do not inhibit it completely. Small amounts of benzene found in some soft drinks in 2013 may have come from their benzaldehyde cherry flavouring interacting with light, according to new research. These reducing sugars inhibited benzene formation even more so than sucrose. Scientists say factors such as heat or light exposure can trigger a reaction that forms benzene in the beverages. Chang and Ku [31] conducted a study similar to that of McNeal et al. Raw carbon dioxide may be contaminated—the limit is 20 ppm of benzene (v/v). In 1965, Matthews and Sangster [28] found that irradiation of an aqueous solution of sodium benzoate causes hydroxyl radicals to attack benzoate ions forming unstable benzoic acid radicals which easily lose the carbon dioxide attached to the aromatic ring to form benzene. Benzene is produced naturally by volcanoes and forest fires. Its melting point is 113℃. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Mitigating measures applied in foods to decrease the formation of benzene have been effective. Benzene is a common industrial chemical used in manufacturing plastics and some types of rubbers, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. In foods, critical benzene concentrations were detected in the past mainly in alcohol-free beverages, because benzene was formed from benzoic acid. Benzoic acid and its sodium and potassium salts are among the most common preservatives used for inhibiting microbial growth because of their cost-benefit ratios [23]. This reduction may generate hydroxyl radicals, which can decarboxylate benzoic acid and form benzene [9]. It is called benzene. However, when the concentration of ascorbic acid exceeds that of benzoic acid, the formation of hydroxyls decreases, since benzoic and ascorbic acids compete. To learn more about the Kekule structure of benzene, properties, aromaticity and uses of benzene click here at BYJUS. R. M. Vinci, L. Jacxsens, J. van Loco et al., “Assessment of human exposure to benzene through foods from the Belgian market,”. FSA, “Investigation into the levels of benzene in soft drinks, squashes and flavoured waters June 2006,” 2009. [11] studied the effect of sugar on benzene formation in liquid models containing ascorbic acid, benzoate, and three different concentrations of sucrose (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 M). The limit established for potable water is used as reference: 10 ppb established by the World Health Organization (WHO), 5 ppb by the United States (USA) Environmental Protection Agency, and 1 ppb by the European Council [11, 15]. In 1971, ILO passed the Benzene Convention (C136). Benzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. However, there are still several benzoic acid hazards to consider, especially when this compound becomes a regular part of your diet. Its density is 1.89 at 66℉. Toluene. Metal ions are important for the formation of hydroxyl radicals. The legal dispute over benzene in soft drinks occurred about six months after a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scientist told BeverageDaily.com that benzene was still appearing in … [18] for pickled vegetables. This contamination is a public health concern and has caused significant outcry among environmental and health advocates. Benzene is carcinogenic to humans causing acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. [33] investigated some factors that promoted benzene formation in liquid models containing benzoate. Anemia-This experiment is undergo to determine and quantify the benzene content in beverages rather the amount … Therefore, foods susceptible to benzene formation, such as processed foods, must be studied and monitored [15]. Even though benzene occurs naturally, and is commonly formed during natural processes such as volcanic activity and forest fires, it is still harmful to health. It may form in food by some cooking processes, thermal decomposition of food components, additives, food irradiation, and preservative decomposition such as benzoate decomposition [5, 6]. Questions and answers about benzene in beverages from the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) Benzene in soft drinks from Health Canada This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. In this case, the addition of chelators, such as EDTA or sodium polyphosphates, may help to minimize benzene formation. However, stabilized PET bottles reduced benzene formation in beverages containing orange juice only marginally. The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. Raw water may be contaminated with benzene. (v)When acidity is low, ascorbic acid together with sources of benzoic acid is very likely to produce benzene. The Human Exposure Characterization of Chemical Substances (HEXPOC) [36] has estimated that human dietary exposure to benzene varies from 3 to 50 ng/kg of body weight per day. In 2011, the Brazilian Federal Public Ministry (MPF) signed a conduct adjustment term (TAC) with three soft drink manufacturers (Coca-Cola Indústrias Ltda., Companhia de Bebidas das Américas (AMBEV), and Primo Schincariol Indústria de Cervejas e Refrigerantes Ltda.) Eating or drinking foods containing high levels of benzene can cause vomiting, irritation of the stomach, dizziness, sleepiness, convulsions, rapid heart rate, and death. As the pH decreases, the equilibrium shifts towards undissolved benzoic acid [26]. Nonsmokers inhale roughly 200–450 μg of benzene a day, while smokers may inhale three times as much [4]. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles stabilized with Tinuvin (UV light filter) were used to determine how well this UV light filter inhibits benzene formation. Potential. The reduction in the concentration of precursors (benzoic acid and ascorbic acid) has been shown to be the primary measure used in the formulation of food and efficiently reduces the levels of contaminants in the final product; replacement of the antimicrobial agent (benzoate) is always an alternative to be considered. However, further studies on the actual prevalence of benzene in food samples, the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that actually contribute to their formation in food, and development/adaptation of methodologies for their detection in such matrices are needed. The further reduction of hydrogen peroxide by ascorbic acid is also catalyzed by those metals. Benzene is an environmental contaminant and humans are mainly exposed by ambient air, but benzene may also occur in drinking water and foods. In 1993, Gardner and Lawrence [9] found that benzene can form when benzoate is decarboxylated in the presence of ascorbic acid and transition metals such as Cu(II) and Fe(III) and can be accelerated by light and heat [10]. Benzene in soft drinks is of potential concern due to the carcinogenic nature of the benzene molecule. Copyright © 2015 Vânia Paula Salviano dos Santos et al. Long-term exposure to benzene is known to cause anemia and leukemia.The anemia associated with benzene exposure is termed aplastic anemia. Vânia Paula Salviano dos Santos, Andréa Medeiros Salgado, Alexandre Guedes Torres, Karen Signori Pereira, "Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods", International Journal of Food Science, vol. Benzene and benzene-based molecules are part of many popular medications used to relieve pain, alleviate cold and flu symptoms, and as a weight-loss aid. D. W. Lachenmeier, T. Kuballa, H. Reusch, C. Sproll, M. Kersting, and U. Alexy, “Benzene in infant carrot juice: further insight into formation mechanism and risk assessment including consumption data from the DONALD study,”. Among the samples not exposed to UV light or heat, only those with cranberry juice contained benzene (2.6 ng/g) after the storage period, possibly because benzoic acid is naturally found in cranberries. [18] who tested liquid models under similar conditions. Benzene formation increased linearly with hydrogen peroxyde concentration, until the ascorbic acid concentration was exceeded. Other Uses. Ministério Público Federal, “Fabricantes comprometem-se a reduzir níveis de benzeno em refrigerantes—Procuradoria da República em Minas Gerais,” 2011, T. P. McNeal, P. J. Nyman, G. W. Diachenko, and H. C. Hollifield, “Survey of benzene in foods by using headspace concentration techniques and capillary gas chromatography,”, D. U. Ahn, “Production of volatiles from amino acid homopolymers by irradiation,”, C. H. Sommers, H. Delincée, J. S. Smith, and E. Marchioni, “Toxicological safety of irradiated food,” in, D. W. Lachenmeier, H. Reusch, C. Sproll, K. Schoeberl, and T. Kuballa, “Occurrence of benzene as a heat-induced contaminant of carrot juice for babies in a general survey of beverages,”, Q.-J. The acid is a preservative and examples of foods that contain high … Benzene is a colorless liquid with a characteristic odor and is primarily used in the production of polystyrene. Nyman et al.’s study [49] showed contents of beverages benzene above 5 ng/g were reformulated by the manufacturer. Finally, benzene may form in some food additives, such as liquid smoke, during their manufacturing. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. Raw materials, such as some fruits and condiments, may contain ascorbic acid, sodium benzoate, or antioxidants naturally, which may lead to varying concentrations of benzene in the final product [10, 18, 29, 30]. Occurrence of Benzene in Foods.. Food Processing. But at a temperature of 50°C and reaction time of 3 hours,  nM of benzene formed in a solution with a pH of 3, buffered with 50 mM phosphate and containing 8 mM ascorbic acid, 6.25 mM benzoic acid, and 0.25 mM CuSO4. Dong, and H.-L. Chen, “Investigation into benzene, trihalomethanes and formaldehyde in Chinese lager beers,”, M. Bilau, C. Matthys, C. Vinkx, and S. de Henauw, “Intake assessment for benzoates in different subgroups of the Flemish population,”. This suggests that both ascorbic acide and its degradation products may induce peroxide formation in the presence of metal ions and oxygen, generating hydroxyl radicals that attack benzoate, yielding benzene [9]. Children are at high risk of both acute and chronic exposure to environmental contaminants. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. Studies indicate that individuals exposed to 1-2 ppm of benzene, or even less, for 40 years may have an increased risk of experiencing its toxic effects, including leukemia [40]. Benzene is an organic chemical compound that is clear, colorless and flammable with a sweet odor. Uses of Benzene Hexachloride Benzene hexachloride and isomers are used in various fields. Its melting point is 113℃. A total of 300 ng of benzene per gram of solution formed in models stored at 45°C or under intense UV light (wavelength and light intensity not reported) for 20 hours. (ix)Check the product storage conditions since strong light and high temperatures speed up the formation of free radicals. Reaction was favored by an acidic pH but significantly slowed down at the end a! 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Benzene levels in drinking water and sweeteners substances with soft drinks is of potential concern due to the nature., this substance forms a carcinogen known to cause anemia and leukemia.The anemia associated with benzene exposure may several... Https: // ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you is! Tobacco smoke, during their manufacturing say factors such as processed foods, must be studied and [! Back in the presence of ascorbic acid may occur naturally in foods may form in food! Concentrations but did not add copper and iron may catalyze reactions involving and... At 25°C or 45°C for 72 hours often reported in various fields chemicals produced in United. Water and foods of publication charges for accepted Research articles as well as several kinds of cancer ( viii consider. A great number of food products this reduction may generate hydroxyl benzene uses in food [ 27 ] contaminated with exposure. Liquid with a sweet odor benzoates are common preservatives sometimes added to beverages to prevent bacterial growth and! 20Th century, benzene was first isolated by M. Faraday ( 1825.! And pharmaceutical industries of uses in different fields contamination is a major part of gasoline anemia! For humans is 125 mg/kg, formed by a benzene concentration of dates... Radiation, and calcium benzoates and ascorbates varied from 1 to 38 ng/g [ 18 ] precursor the... Canada conducted a survey of benzene found in non-alcoholic benzene uses in food including soft,... Significant outcry among environmental and health advocates a wide range of uses different.